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New Developments in Indoor Positioning Technology

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There has been a long-standing interest in accurate indoor positioning technology, with a wide range of interesting use cases involving the tracking of either people or objects.

These include locating assets in a warehouse or other facility, finding people or for sports-related data-analysis.

However, the will has not always been matched by the means. The technology has been either too inaccurate to serve the intended purpose or too complex and proprietary to easily put in place. We assume GPS is not feasible or accurate enough.

First, let’s look at the terminology. It is common in positioning systems to use the term “Tag” to refer to the mobile device that is being tracked and “Anchor” to the fixed points used to form a reference point or grid within which the Tag can be tracked.

The simplest indoor tracking method uses Bluetooth Beacons, a cheap and widely used technology. These work off simply received signal strength (RSSI) indicators, with position determined by the signal strength measured at one or more anchors.

Nearly everyone carries a Bluetooth device, namely their mobile phone. For objects, a dedicated tag can be easily and relatively cheaply created. Bluetooth has a simple standardized mechanism (“advertising”) whereby a device can send out a short message to detect location without complex interaction with the rest of the system.

The major drawback of such a system is the lack of accuracy. The signal strength (or RSSI) is hugely influenced by obstacles between the two points, the relative orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennas and other factors.

In looking at the potential accuracy of locating a Tag worn by a person using Bluetooth RSSI, it’s necessary to consider the effect the human body could have. If we imagine the Tag as a badge pinned to a lapel, the emitted advertising pulse traverses the body in one direction but is freely transmitted through air in the other. Thus, if we consider a person with such a Tag equidistant between two Anchors, the measurements at each anchor will be very different.

Direct transmission through the body might involve an antennation of up to -50db. There would probably be transmission round the body or reflection. However, 10 – 20db attenuation could be realistic, meaning the two equidistant anchors would infer distances different of up to an order of magnitude.

Even the direct measurement can only be assumed to be within a +/- 3 dB window resulting in an error in the distance estimation of a factor of 2 i.e. “somewhere between x m and 2 times x m”.

New capabilities
To improve accuracy, the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), has introduced new capabilities with Bluetooth 5.1 including the detection of the angle of arrival of a Bluetooth packet.

This works by having a multiple antenna arrays in the Anchor and measuring the phase difference of the same signal received at the different antennas, typically separated by a half wavelength i.e. c. 6cm.

The diagram below shows a signal arriving at an angle to the antenna array, assumed to be sufficiently far away that the paths to the different antenna elements can be parallel lines. Therefore, at right angles to the direction of travel, the signal is in phase.

The accuracy of the angle of arrival estimate is related to 2 fundamental parameters:
• The total width of the antenna array, typically (N-1) *λ/2 where N is the number of linearly spaced antennas
• The accuracy with which the phase of the received signal can be measured for each antenna

The accuracy with which the phase can be measured depends on the precision of the IQ sampling carried out by the BLE device, which is affected by the internal precision of the IQ demodulator and the short term frequency drift of the crystal oscillators used in both the tag and the anchor.

In this article, we have assumed that the BLE device can resolve the electrical phase between bursts coming from different antennas with a tolerance of +/- 10° due to the combination of the different error inducing factors.

Geometric calculations indicate that for a 2 antenna array this results in an angular positioning error of +/- 3° close to the axis normal to the antenna plane and +/-5° at 45° relative to the axis.

Similar calculations show that for a 4 antenna array the accuracy of the angle estimation is improved respectively to +/-1° close to the axis and +/-1.5° at 45°.

Assuming a more realistic angle accuracy of +/- 5 degrees, then the accuracy of location is dependent on the distance * tan (5 degrees). So, at 25m distance, one would have an error of 0.087*25 = +/- 2m. Thus, with multiple anchors, one could expect to localize an object within a “zone” of 1-2 meters, depending on the distance from the anchor.

New developments in indoor positioning technology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The other main method of indoor positioning is Ultra-Wide Band (UWB). This method uses a short sharp pulse in the 5-8 GHz range and detects the time of flight between two points, somewhat analogous to an “indoor GPS”. In terms of accuracy, such a system is limited by the timing accuracy of the arrival of a pulse. Using the speed of light at 3 x 10**8 m/s, one can calculate that to achieve 1cm accuracy, timing accuracy of 33ps is required.

Using only the detected amplitude of the received pulse implies that the accuracy is approximately equivalent to half the pulse width. Since pulse width is directly related to the inverse of bandwidth and UWB systems typically use a 500MHz bandwidth, this technique could achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.5/500MHz =1ns or 30cm. However, UWB systems use very high-frequency sampling of the incoming pulse train and correlation to a known reference train to improve accuracy. Assuming the high-frequency sampling captures the phase of the pulse to within +/-45°, the accuracy would be related to ¼ of the carrier frequency period. In the case of 6.5 GHz UWB, this implies an accuracy of 0.25/6.5 GHz or 38ps, equivalent to 1cm positioning precision.

In real case examples the basic repeatability of the receiver is of the order of 130ps (4cm) and additional antenna environmental issues allow for an average achieved accuracy of around 10cm. The disadvantage of such a method is that until now it has been based on closed proprietary technologies and complex and expensive systems. Real installations require a system to synchronize and keep synchronized the Anchors at high precision. Such systems are not trivial to install.

However, there have been interesting developments in the Ultra-Wide Band ecosystem. The first is that Apple mysteriously announced that the recent iPhone 11 will have a “U1” chip in it with UWB capability. There are almost no details available, but if this was to presage the development of a de-facto standard and a movement to make UWB ubiquitous in the mobile phone, it would be a game-changer for the technology. Also notable is NXP becoming the first large silicon player to announce a UWB chip.

There are also intriguing possibilities if, as seems likely with the next generation, UWB devices were to offer an Angle of Arrival capability. This, coupled with accurate distance measurement, would provide the capability to locate an object with reasonably high precision in 2-D from a single anchor. This would significantly simplify the installation of indoor location systems.

In conclusion, indoor positioning technology has a lot of value-adding use cases. What has been lacking are solutions that are sufficiently cheap and, perhaps more importantly, easy to install.

The technology to change this has developed slowly until now, but it has perhaps reached an inflection point where more widespread adoption will drive it on an accelerated development path.

Author details:

Nick Wood is President and Chris Barrant, CTO, Insight SiP

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Motorcycles

Motorcycle Tech in 2022

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Looking to enhance your motorcycle riding experience in 2022? Here are the 10 motorcycles tech for riders to consider. From GPS systems to audio and video enhancements, these tools can make your ride more enjoyable and informative.

1. Bluetooth Helmet:

Bluetooth technology is becoming more and more popular on motorcycles, with a lot of riders opting for standalone Bluetooth systems like the Cardo or AGV helmets. There are also a number of motorcycle-specific Bluetooth systems on the market, the most popular brands are Sena, Cardo Systems, etc. One advantage of standalone Bluetooth systems is that they can be used with any helmet, no matter the brand. This means that riders can select a system that fits their budget and their style.

Some motorcycle manufacturers even offer special deals on standalone Bluetooth systems if you buy a helmet from them, like Shoei, Scorpion, and Bilt. Another great benefit of Bluetooth systems is that they are compatible with most smartphones. This means that you can use your smartphone to control music, navigation, lighting, and other bike features without having to take your hands off the handlebars.

2. Heads-Up Display:

A heads-up display (HUD) for motorcycle riders can provide important information such as speed, distance traveled, and current location on the map while keeping your eyes focused on the road. Bluetooth technology makes this capability easy to use, and an optional camera attached to the mirror provides a clear view of the surroundings. This type of display is becoming increasingly popular because it provides riders with critical information without taking their eyes off the road.

There are a few of these devices on the market, but most of them have a pretty high price tag. The recent addition to this list is the DVison Heads-up Display. It seems to mount like the CamBox Camera right behind the helmet’s visor. As for compatibility, DVision’s heads-up display can fit a variety of helmets. It makes use of a clip that mounts onto the inside of your helmet’s shell and can be used on everything from full-face helmets, modular helmets, and even jet helmets. The current kicker is that is not yet available in the United States, you can however purchase and have it shipped to Germany and surrounding countries. you can learn more about DVison at https://dvision-hud.com

UPDATE: TILSBERK has informed our staff that they are hoping to be able to ship out the DVison Heads-Up Display to US customers in 2023.  Once we get a hold of one we will do a Review.

3. Motorcycle Cameras:

Camera technology is always evolving and advancing, which is why motorcycle riders need to keep up with the latest trends. One of the latest camera technologies to hit the market is helmet cameras. Helmet cameras can be a great way to capture footage of your ride and share it with friends or family. Sena has several helmet camera models that are compatible with GoPro cameras, such as the 10C/10C Pro and the new 50C with Premium SOUND BY Harman Kardon.

These models offer great quality footage and are especially useful for drifting and racing. Cambox is another popular option for helmet cameras. Cambox offers excellent quality footage at an affordable price, making it a great choice for riders who want to capture footage of their ride but don’t want to spend a lot of money. Bell Helmets just recently released a Built-in helmet with a camera at the top to provide much-needed footage for motorcyclists in case of an accident.

4. GPS Trackers:

A GPS tracker is a helpful tool for motorcyclists. GPS Trackers can provide peace of mind while riding and when your bike is parked. . There are a few different types of trackers available, so it is important to find the one that is right for you. There is a handful on the market that are the most popular like the SPOT Me LTE GPS tracker. The SPOT ME acts like a beacon that marks your location every time it’s in motion and when it stops. You can view history in the Android/iOS app or on the web on their website. Another option is the RLink tracker which is actually plugged into your motorcycle’s electrical system and can track ignitions, tilts, and movement.

You can also export your rides into the Rever ride tracking app (RLink comes with a year free of Rever Pro). The new player in this field is the MoniMoto, touted as “The Smart Motorcycle GPS Tracker”. It allows you to track your bike’s whereabouts and monitor your ride stats in real-time, even when you are not riding. The Morimoto also has a built-in phone alarm that will notify you if your bike goes out of range or gets stolen!

5. Heated Grips:

The cold winter weather can be a real challenge when it comes to riding a motorcycle. Many riders turn to heated grips to help them stay comfortable and safe on their rides. Here are some of the best-heated grips for motorcycle riding in the winter:

  • Kawasaki has been making motorcycles for over 50 years and they know a thing or two about keeping riders warm. Their Heated Hand Grips come with three heat settings and are available in both right and left-hand versions. The grip is also waterproof and windproof so you can rely on it in any weather condition.
  • BMW also makes excellent motorcycles, and they understand how important it is to keep riders comfortable in the cold weather. Their Rocker Warmers are perfect for motorcyclists who ride in colder climates, as they come with three heat settings as well as an auto shut-off feature.

If your bike did not already come with heated grips you can find many Universal Heated Grip for Motorcycles out there. No matter what type or size of motorcycle you ride, an Oxford Heated Grips makes riding in cold weather much more comfortable. These grips are made from durable, heat-resistant materials, and have a built-in thermostat that maintains a constant, comfortable temperature. The Oxfords come in both left and right-hand versions, so you can choose which grip is best suited for your dominant hand.

6. Tire Pressure Monitoring System:

Looking to save on tire maintenance costs? Consider purchasing a motorcycle tire pressure monitoring system. TPMS systems alert riders when their tires are dangerously low on air, saving them money and time in the future. FOBO is one such company that offers motorcycle TPMS systems but harnesses Bluetooth. FOBO has come up with a Bluetooth motorcycle tire pressure monitoring system that has a Smart processing function that works for every rider.

You have found the right tool to check your tires through your phone! The TPMS has a view of on-demand tire pressure and temperature that displays quickly. This indicates the level of pressure and temperature. With the quick monitoring process, the miniature equipment monitors 24/7 to check the condition of your tires. You can check your tires at different times, thanks to the frequent update. There are a few cons with this product though, though research on the interwebs, it looks like the product is not fully waterproof, so if you forget they are on it might be a costly mistake, as they retail around a hundred dollars on amazon.

7. Ride Saftey System

A ride-sharing company is using a 360-degree artificial intelligence (AI) system to help drivers avoid blind spots and stay alert to potential distractions. The Ride Vision 360-Degree AI System was developed by a startup called Blindspot. The system uses sensors in the cars and on the roads to create a 3D map of the area around them. It then uses that information to provide drivers with warnings about potential dangers ahead, including people or objects in their blind spot. Ride Vision 360-Degree AI System is currently being used by the company GoGet, which operates a ride-sharing service in Sydney, Australia.

Everything is hard-wired to your bike’s battery, so no worries about having to take another device inside with you to charge. Ride Vision claims the power draw is less than if you were charging your phone, which is always a plus. The company has been working on this tech for the past few years, and just raised $7 million in additional venture capital to help it launch its first product in early 2021. The initial launch will see Ride Vision units sold in Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, and the U.K. Other countries should follow at later dates, including Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, and the U.S. Exact dates for any launches have yet to be announced.

8. LED Lighting:

The popularity of LED motorcycle lighting continues to grow as riders opt for brighter and more efficient headlights and taillights. Lights that use LEDs are more expensive than traditional lights, but the benefits of using them far outweigh the cost. XKGlow is a leading supplier of LED motorcycle and ATV lighting. they offer a wide range of lighting options, from simple on/off switches to Bluetooth-controlled LED kits.

Then if you want to Tron up your look, enter LightMode LED Kits! These smart and colorful light kits are perfect for any helmet. They can be controlled with your Android/iOS phone using their app, providing you with the flexibility to change your ride’s look anytime, anywhere. And don’t forget about their safety benefits—with these LED kits, you’ll be able to see better in low light conditions and stay safe on the road.

9. Airbags

What is the best way to protect yourself while riding a motorcycle? The answer, of course, is by wearing full gear. However, not all riders feel fully safe in gear. For those who feel like they need the next level of protection, there are other ways to protect themselves. One option is to wear clothing that includes airbags. CX Air Dynamics just debuted a new airbag pant in 2021, These pants are made of heavy-duty material and are designed to protect you in the event of a crash. The pants also feature a built-in motorbike safety system that will help protect you in the event of an accident. With these pants, you can be sure that you are safe and protected while riding your motorcycle. .

Other products route there include jackets, suits, and vests designed to protect riders from accidents. Alpinestars also produces airbag apparel. Their jackets and suits are specifically designed for motorcyclists and feature ABS plastic shields that protect riders from injuries in the event of an accident. Dainese also makes airbag clothing for motorcyclists. Their products include jackets and suits made of durable materials that can withstand multiple crashes. Klim also produces motorcycle airbag apparel in the form of a vest, but in recent media, had issues with its subscription service following the fire in a french data center, leaving current owners to wonder why a product that is supposed to be always ready to save you could be remotely disabled at the will of the company or a datacenter failure.

10. Adaptive Cruise Control

Now, this is not normal tech you can just buy for any bike, but it’s making a splash on new bikes that are coming out. Adaptive cruise control (ACC) for motorcycles has come a long way since its introduction in 2005 on the BMW S1000RR. Now available on many models from different brands, DCC offers riders increased safety and comfort by maintaining a preset speed, even in situations where the rider may feel nervous or unsure about the road ahead. BMW’s DCC system uses an ultrasonic sensor to keep track of the motorcycle’s surroundings. If the motorcycle starts to drift out of its lane, the system will apply braking until it is back within its lane and then resume cruising at the set speed. Ducati’s Dynamic Cruise Control (DCC) is similar to BMW’s and utilizes a camera to monitor traffic around the bike. The Bavarian and Italian ACC systems use radar to help control the speed of the motorcycle. This means that they can tell how fast other cars are going, and then adjust the speed of their motorcycle accordingly. This helps keep the motorcycle from going too fast or too slow and makes it easier to stay in lane.

What are your thoughts, did we miss a product or new tech that’s out there, leave a comment below, and let us know!

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Motorcycles

KTM unveils updated 1290 Super Adventure S

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KTM unveils updated 1290 Super Adventure S

KTM needs not to fight its corner when it comes to off-road motorcycling. With 18 consecutive Dakar Rally titles (you read that right) under its belt and a slew of class-leading adventure machines in its line-up, the Mattighofen manufacturer has more than written itself into motorcycling’s history books. But this week it has once again leveled up, unveiling the 2021 1290 Super Adventure S and confidently dubbing it its ‘sportiest and most technologically advanced Adventure bike’ yet.

KTM unveils updated 1290 Super Adventure S
Whether out on your street bike or off-road motorcycle, every ride on your KTM is a racing adventure waiting to be experienced!

The third generation of its over-1,000cc adventure family in the last eight years (after the 1090 and 1190 models), 1290 first arrived in 2015, boasting a growling 1,301cc LC8 V-Twin. The ‘S’ And ‘R’ derivates arrived in 2017, and this week ‘the world just got smaller’ with the introduction of the updated model, which promises redesigned ergonomics, performance-boosting tech, and advanced componentry.

So, what’s new? Well, what isn’t… For 2021, the Super Adventure S has seen a comprehensive overhaul, starting with its revered, and now Euro5 compliant powerplant, which has lost 1.6kg thanks to thinner engine cases and a new oil circuit, and gained new, more reliable pistons, an increased service interval of 15,000km and lowers fuel consumption. A new cooling system sees two new radiators channel warm air away from the rider’s legs, thus the whole unit promises better cooling than before. Making 162PS (119kW) and 138Nm (102lb-ft), it also features an upgraded two-headed exhaust and a revised PANKL gear mechanism, which works optimally with the optional quick-shifter.

Meet the cutting-edge evolution of the KTM ADVENTURE spirit: the 2021 KTM 1290 SUPER ADVENTURE S. KTM’s latest expression of high-performance adventuring redefines the standards in rider-focused ergonomics, performance-enhancing technology and state-of-the-art componentry.

Cradling the lovely LC8 is a shortened chassis, within which KTM has lowered the center of gravity and enhance agility by relocating the front section of the engine and moving the steering head back by 15mm. Meanwhile, a longer open-lattice swingarm promises more stability under acceleration, while a new generation of WP APEX Semi-Active Technology (SAT) suspension, complete with a 6D lean angle sensor, promises improved damping.

This suspension can be further bolstered with the Suspension Pro package, which features individual damping for the fork and the shock, automatic preload adjustment and an on/off Anti Dive setting. The Rally Pack, meanwhile, adds the Rally riding mode and the MTC slip adjuster, while the comprehensive Tech Pack combines the Suspension Pro and Rally Pack features, with the Quickshifter+, the Motor Slip Regulation, Hill Hold Control, and adaptive brake light.

Dive into the world of KTM and experience our pure racing focus.

A lower seat height has made the machine more accessible, achieved via a revised subframe and new two-tiered seat, which in itself is adjustable by 20mm. A front the seat is a new 23-liter, keyless-cap fuel tank, and ergonomically-optimized fairings to bring a sharp new look. Also adjustable are the handlebar levers, the all-new TFT dash, and the windscreen, the latter moving up to 55mm.

Measuring seven inches diagonally, this new TFT display features smartphone connectivity, plus a more practical and more aesthetic display. Underneath is the ‘glovebox’ for which KTM’s adventure machines are known, complete with a USB charging socket. Meanwhile, new switchgear features on the bars.

Among the model’s suite of electronic aids is the innovative new radar-based Adaptive Cruise Control. Developed in collaboration with Bosch, the system automatically adjusts according to traffic ahead, with five levels of adjustment available to the rider. The lean angle-dependent traction control promises to be less intrusive than it was previously and boasts separate controllers and strategies for wheel slip and pitch angle while cornering and off-road ABS come included in the new Bosch Motorcycle Stability Control package.

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Triumph Street Triple RS and Tiger 800 get connected technology

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Triumph Street Triple RS and Tiger 800 get connected technology

Connected technology is fast becoming a standard feature in most premium motorcycles over the last few years. In line with this, several companies have started retrofitting their old models with the latest-generation connected tech to compete with new rivals. One such company is Triumph which has been equipping its older models with new technology. The British motorcycle maker recently revealed that Street Triple RS and Tiger 800 are now available with the My Triumph connectivity system. The company noted that the two bikes can now be fitted with a TFT instrument console which will provide a host of features like telephony, turn-by-turn navigation, etc.

This new feature is available for older models as the BS6 variant already gets the connected technology. Triumph noted that Street Triple RS manufactured between 2017 and 2019 can be retrofitted with the new instrument console and connectivity features. And as for the Tiger 800, the ADV bikes with model years between 2018 to 2019 can be upgraded with the My Triumph connectivity system.

Triumph’s My Triumph connectivity system works alongside the My Triumph app that has been developed as a result of Google’s first partnership with a premium motorcycle brand. This app allows riders to wirelessly pair their smartphone with the motorcycle’s console and access features like turn-by-turn navigation with voice guidance available through a Bluetooth headset is connected. The app also uses built-in what3words functionality to navigate to an exact three-meter.

Another major advantage offered by the My Triumph suite is that it lets riders control the GoPro camera using the TFT console and switchgear. Besides these, the connected tech offers provisions like make/receive calls, check SMS, and control music through the left side switchgear. And let’s not forget that there’s also a dedicated My Garage feature in the My Triumph app that provides information like odometer, average fuel consumption, scheduled service date on the smartphone. Triumph noted that the existing Street Triple RS and Tiger 800 customers will be able to retrofit their bikes with the TFT instrument cluster and connected technology from 21 December 2020. And in case you own a Triumph Tiger 1200, then the retrofit package will be available to you next year.

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